Residue and waste material serve as viable and cheap forms of biomass. Types of residue and waste material include:
- Agricultural residues - corn stover, straw, sugar cane bagasse
- Municipal solid waste
- Waste vegetable oil
- Methane gas from landfills and farm muck piles
- Forest material
Depending on the conversion process used, these types of biomass can be converted to electricity, heat, or fuel.